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Mixed-species exhibits with herpestids and Madagascar carnivores

 Meerkat and aardvark mixed exhibit, ZSL London Zoo, United Kingdom, 2009 Photo: ChristianCurrently, there are 34 species of mongooses described in the family Herpestidae, although further taxonomic research may lead to this number changing in the future. Twenty-five members of the taxon live in Africa, and nine in Asia. According to the current subdivision of Herpestidae, ― using not only morphology, but also behavioural ecology and molecular markers ― two subfamilies are supported within the taxon. The subfamily Herpestinae involves 23, mostly large and solitary mongoose species (genus Atilax, Bdeogale, Cynictis, Galerella, Herpestes, Ichneumia, Paracynictis, Rhynchogale, Xenogale), while the subfamily Mungotinae comprises 11, mainly small and social species (genus Crossarchus, Dologale, Helogale, Liberiictis, Mungos, Suricata).

In the list below, you can see which species have been kept in mixed exhibits in captivity. Due to the similarities in morphology and lifestyle, an additional species, the narrow-striped mongoose (Mungotictis decemlineata) is also mentioned here (recent placement of this taxon is: family Eupleridae, Madagascar Carnivores, subfamily Galidiinae, Mongoose-like Madagascar Carnivores).

Herpestidae

Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta Schreber, 1776
Yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata G.B. Cuvier, 1829
Common dwarf mongoose, Helogale parvula Sundevall, 1847
Banded mongoose, Mungos mungo Gmelin, 1788
Gambian mongoose, Mungos gambianus Ogilby, 1835
Common kusimanse, Crossarchus obscurus F.G. Cuvier, 1825
White-tailed mongoose, Ichneumia albicauda G.B. Cuvier, 1829
Marsh mongoose, Atilax paludinosus G.B. Cuvier, 1829
Egyptian mongoose, Herpestes ichneumon Linnaeus, 1758
Indian grey mongoose, Herpestes edwardsii É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1818

Eupleridae

Narrow-striped mongoose, Mungotictis decemlineata A. Grandidier, 1867

Mutualism, as a new concept of mixed-species exhibitry

Social species often display an impressive level of cooperation such as babysitting youngsters or predator perception and deterrence; but interspecific cooperation also occurs within the taxon Herpestidae.
Common kusimanses have been observed playing with mona monkeys (Cercopithecus mona). Liberian mongooses (Liberiictis kühni) are often found in association with sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) and flee in response to the primates’ anti-predator warning calls. Banded mongooses also respond with increased vigilance to the alarm calls of several other species, particularly plovers (Vanellus spp.), slender-tailed meerkats respond to the warning calls of fork-tailed drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis), and southern yellow-billed hornbill (Tockus leucomelas). It is worth mentioning that fork-tailed drongos are capable of using deceptive mimicked alarm calls to steal food from different birds and meerkats (kleptoparasitism).
Cape grey mongooses (Galerella pulverulenta) have been observed to associate with small raptors, such as African marsh harriers (Circus ranivorus) during foraging.
The yellow mongoose was observed in cooperative vigilance with a group of meerkats. Meerkats are excellent diggers and excavate dens themselves, but usually occupy dens dug by other small mammals. These shelters may be shared with yellow mongooses and South African ground squirrels (Xerus inauris).
Furthermore, in some cases we can speak about real mutualistic relationships. Common dwarf mongooses in the Taru desert region of Kenya form foraging communities with a variety of endemic bird species, especially the Von der Decken’s hornbill (Tockus deckeni), the eastern yellow-billed hornbill (Tockus flavirostris) and the red-billed hornbill (Tockus erythrorhynchus). This mutualistic association between the birds and the small mammals is actively sought by both parties, so both the hornbills and the mongooses seek each other out in order to forage together and warn each other of nearby raptors and other predators.
Common warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) in Queen Elizabeth National Park (Uganda) and Maasai Mara National Reserve (Kenya) have learned to lie down in the presence of banded mongooses. In response, the mongooses have learned to inspect the warthogs for ticks, groom them, remove and eat ectoparasites.
These mutualistic relationships have served as a base for creating mixed-species exhibits with the given mongoose species in captivity: banded mongoose & common warthog coexistence has been tried out in Chester Zoo (United Kingdom); common dwarf mongoose & hornbill (Tockus spp.) combination has been created in Tiergarten Schönbrunn (Austria), Tiergarten Nürnberg (Germany), Bronx Zoo (USA), Dallas Zoo (USA), Oregon Zoo (USA) and Great Plains Zoo & Delbridge Museum of Natural History (USA).

LIST OF SPECIES COMBINATIONS

The list shows examples of species combinations with at least one herpestid species combined with the taxa below

 Meerkat and aardvark mixed exhibit, ZSL London Zoo, United Kingdom, 2009 Photo: ChristianSlender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
Aardvark, Orycteropus afer
Rock hyrax, Procavia capensis
African elephant, Loxodonta africana
Thick-tailed greater galago, Otolemur crassicaudatus
Ring-tailed lemur, Lemur catta
Red-chested mustached tamarin, Saguinus labiatus
Grivet monkey, Chlorocebus aethiops
Sykes’s monkey, Cercopithecus albogularis
King colobus, Colobus polykomos
Guinea baboon, Papio papio
Hamadryas baboon, Papio hamadryas
Western lowland gorilla, Gorilla gorilla gorilla
European ground squirrel, Spermophilus citellus
South African ground squirrel, Xerus inauris
Cape porcupine, Hystrix africaeaustralis
Crested porcupine, Hystrix cristata
Indian crested porcupine, Hystrix indica
African brush-tailed porcupine, Atherurus africanus
Lion, Panthera leo
Aardwolf, Proteles cristatus
Meerkat and aardvark mixed exhibit, ZSL London Zoo, United Kingdom, 2009 Photo: ChristianYellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
Banded mongoose, Mungos mungo
Common dwarf mongoose, Helogale parvula
Bat-eared fox, Otocyon megalotis
Fennec fox, Vulpes zerda
Plains zebra, Equus quagga burchellii
Grevy’s zebra, Equus grevyi
Common warthog, Phacochoerus africanus
Red river hog, Potamochoerus porcus
Guenther’s dik-dik, Madoqua guentheri
Kirk’s dik-dik, Madoqua kirkii
Kafue lechwe, Kobus leche kafuensis
Black wildebeest, Connochaetes gnou
Giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis
Helmeted guineafowl, Numida meleagris
Blue crane, Anthropoides paradiseus
Von der Decken’s hornbill, Tockus deckeni
Red-billed hornbill, Tockus erythrorhynchus
Pelican sp., Pelecanus sp.
African spurred tortoise, Centrochelys sulcata
Leopard tortoise, Stigmochelys pardalis

Yellow mongoose and crested porcupine mixed exhibit, ZSL London Zoo, United Kingdom, 2009 Photo: ChristianYellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
Rock hyrax, Procavia capensis
South African ground squirrel, Xerus inauris
Cape porcupine, Hystrix africaeaustralis
Crested porcupine, Hystrix cristata
Indian crested porcupine, Hystrix indica
Lion, Panthera leo
Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
Bat-eared fox, Otocyon megalotis
Fennec fox, Vulpes zerda
Red river hog, Potamochoerus porcus
Blue crane, Anthropoides paradiseus
African spurred tortoise, Centrochelys sulcata

Common dwarf mongoose, Helogale parvula
Aardvark, Orycteropus afer
Rock hyrax, Procavia capensis
Garnett’s greater galago, Otolemur garnettii
South African ground squirrel, Xerus inauris
Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
Bat-eared fox, Otocyon megalotis
Klipspringer, Oreotragus oreotragus
Von der Decken’s hornbill, Tockus deckeni
Red-billed hornbill, Tockus erythrorhynchus
Jackson’s hornbill, Tockus jacksoni
Red-cheeked cordon-bleu, Uraeginthus bengalus
Violet-backed starling, Cinnyricinclus leucogaster
Yellow-crowned bishop, Euplectes afer
African spurred tortoise, Centrochelys sulcata
Giant plated lizard, Matobosaurus validus
Nile crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus
African cichlids, Cichlidae

Banded mongoose and common warthog mixed exhibit, Chester Zoo, United Kingdom, 2009 Photo: ChristianBanded mongoose, Mungos mungo
Rock hyrax, Procavia capensis
Grivet monkey, Chlorocebus aethiops
Colobus, Colobus sp.
Mandrill, Mandrillus sphinx
Crested porcupine, Hystrix cristata
Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
Common warthog, Phacochoerus africanus
Red river hog, Potamochoerus porcus
Red-billed hornbill, Tockus erythrorhynchus
Leopard tortoise, Stigmochelys pardalis

Gambian mongoose, Mungos gambianus
Black vulture, Aegypius monachus
Egyptian vulture, Neophron percnopterus
Griffon vulture, Gyps fulvus
Himalayan griffon vulture, Gyps himalayensis
Rüppell’s vulture, Gyps rueppellii
Hooded vulture, Necrosyrtes monachus
Secretarybird, Sagittarius serpentarius
Trumpeter hornbill, Bycanistes bucinator
Spur-winged goose, Plectropterus gambensis

Banded mongoose and common warthog mixed exhibit, Chester Zoo, United Kingdom, 2009 Photo: ChristianCommon kusimanse, Crossarchus obscurus
Blue-eyed black lemur, Eulemur flavifrons
Diana monkey, Cercopithecus diana
Crested porcupine, Hystrix cristata
African brush-tailed porcupine, Atherurus africanus
Marsh mongoose, Atilax paludinosus

White-tailed mongoose, Ichneumia albicauda
Northern plains gray langur, Semnopithecus entellus
Western lowland gorilla, Gorilla gorilla gorilla
Egyptian mongoose, Herpestes ichneumon

Marsh mongoose, Atilax paludinosus
Eastern black-and-white colobus, Colobus guereza
Common kusimanse, Crossarchus obscurus

Egyptian mongoose, Herpestes ichneumon
White-tailed mongoose, Ichneumia albicauda

Indian grey mongoose, Herpestes edwardsii
Rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta
Dwraf goat, Capra hircus

Narrow-striped mongoose, Mungotictis decemlineata
Crowned lemur, Eulemur coronatus
Malagasy giant jumping rat, Hypogeomys antimena

LIST OF MIXED-SPECIES EXHIBITS WITH LOCATIONS

The list shows specific examples of mixed-species exhibits involving at least one herpestid species combined with the taxa below, with indication of the institution(s) where they have been tried out

Herpestids with herpestids

-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata

Institution(s) with this coexistence: ZOO Antwerpen (Belgium), Yorkshire Wildlife Park (Doncaster, United Kingdom), Kirkleatham Owl Centre (Redcar, United Kingdom), Newquay Zoo (United Kingdom), Knies Kinderzoo (Rapperswil-Jona, Switzerland), Tiergarten Nürnberg (Germany), GaiaZOO (Kerkrade, the Netherlands)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
-    Blue crane, Anthropoides paradiseus

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Five Sisters Zoo Park (West Calder, United Kingdom)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
-    Crested porcupine, Hystrix cristata

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Woburn Safari Park (Milton Keynes, United Kingdom)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
-    Lion, Panthera leo

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Zoologischer Garten Schwerin (Germany), ZOO Antwerpen (Belgium)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
-    Fennec fox, Vulpes zerda
-    South African ground squirrel, Xerus inauris

Unknown institution


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Banded mongoose, Mungos mungo

Unknown institution


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Common dwarf mongoose, Helogale parvula

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Borth Wild Animal Kingdom (United Kingdom)


-    Egyptian mongoose, Herpestes ichneumon
-    White-tailed mongoose, Ichneumia albicauda

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Samjung The Park (Busan, South Korea)


-    Marsh mongoose, Atilax paludinosus
-    Common kusimanse, Crossarchus obscurus

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Dierenpark Zie-Zoo (Volkel, the Netherlands)


Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta

-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata

Institution(s) with this coexistence: ZOO Antwerpen (Belgium), Yorkshire Wildlife Park (Doncaster, United Kingdom), Kirkleatham Owl Centre (Redcar, United Kingdom), Newquay Zoo (United Kingdom), Knies Kinderzoo (Rapperswil-Jona, Switzerland), Tiergarten Nürnberg (Germany), GaiaZOO (Kerkrade, the Netherlands)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
-    Blue crane, Anthropoides paradiseus

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Five Sisters Zoo Park (West Calder, United Kingdom)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
-    Crested porcupine, Hystrix cristata

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Woburn Safari Park (Milton Keynes, United Kingdom)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
-    Lion, Panthera leo

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Zoologischer Garten Schwerin (Germany); ZOO Antwerpen (Belgium)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
-    Fennec fox, Vulpes zerda
-    South African ground squirrel, Xerus inauris

Unknown institution


       -     Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
       -     South African ground squirrel, Xerus inauris

Institution(s) with this coexistence: ZOO Dvůr Králové (Czech Republic), Korkeasaari Zoo (Helsinki, Finland)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    European ground squirrel, Spermophilus citellus

Institution(s) with this coexistence: RZSS Edinburgh Zoo (United Kingdom)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Banded mongoose, Mungos mungo

Unknown institution


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Common dwarf mongoose, Helogale parvula

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Borth Wild Animal Kingdom (United Kingdom)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Lion, Panthera leo

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Colchester Zoo (United Kingdom)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Bat-eared fox, Otocyon megalotis

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Reaseheath Zoo (Nantwich, United Kingdom), San Diego Zoo (United States of America), World of Birds Wildlife Sanctuary and Monkey Park (Cape Town, South African Republic)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Aardwolf, Proteles cristatus
-    Crested porcupine, Hystrix cristata

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Phoenix Zoo (United States of America)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    African elephant, Loxodonta africana

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Jardim Zoológico de Lisboa (Portugal)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Cape porcupine, Hystrix africaeaustralis
-    Plains zebra, Equus quagga burchellii
-    Kafue lechwe, Kobus leche kafuensis

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Newquay Zoo (United Kingdom)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Grevy’s zebra, Equus grevyi
-    Black wildebeest, Connochaetes gnou
-    Helmeted guineafowl, Numida meleagris
-    Pelican sp., Pelecanus sp.

Institution(s) with this coexistence: ARTIS Amsterdam Royal Zoo (the Netherlands)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Rock hyrax, Procavia capensis
-    South African ground squirrel, Xerus inauris
-    Red-billed hornbill, Tockus erythrorhynchus

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Zoo Basel (Switzerland)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Common warthog, Phacochoerus africanus

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Ouwehands Dierenpark (Rhenen, the Netherlands)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Red river hog, Potamochoerus porcus

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Pairi Daiza (Brugelette, Belgium)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Guenther’s dik-dik, Madoqua guentheri

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Disney’s Animal Kingdom (Orlando, United States of America)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Kirk’s dik-dik, Madoqua kirkii

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Dallas Zoo (United States of America)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis

Institution(s) with this coexistence: ZSL London Zoo (United Kingdom)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Rock hyrax, Procavia capensis
-    Leopard tortoise, Stigmochelys pardalis
-    African spurred tortoise, Centrochelys sulcata

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Dierenpark Zie-Zoo (Volkel, the Netherlands)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Indian crested porcupine, Hystrix indica

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Jászberényi Állat- és Növénykert (Hungary), Gyöngyösi Állatkert és Szabadidőpark (Hungary), Opel-Zoo (Kronberg, Germany)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Crested porcupine, Hystrix cristata

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Folly Farm Adventure Park and Zoo (Kilgetty, United Kingdom), Tropical Butterfly House Wildlife And Falconry Centre (North Anston, United Kingdom), North Carolina Zoo (Asheboro, United States of America), Wellington Zoo (New Zealand)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Cape porcupine, Hystrix africaeaustralis

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Belfast Zoo (United Kingdom), Chester Zoo (United Kingdom), Reaseheath Zoo (Nantwich, United Kingdom), Northumberland Country Zoo (Morpeth, United Kingdom), Flamingo Land (Malton, United Kingdom), Paignton Zoo Environmental Park (United Kingdom), Combe Martin Wildlife & Dinosaur Park (Ilfracombe, United Kingdom), Cotswold Wildlife Park and Gardens (Burford, United Kingdom), Longleat Safari Park (Warminster, United-Kingdom) (walk-through), Welsh Mountain Zoo (Colwyn Bay, United Kingdom), København Zoo (Denmark), Bioparc Fuengirola (Spain), Brookfield Zoo (Chicago, United States of America), Pueblo Zoo (United States of America), Calgary Zoo (Canada)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    African brush-tailed porcupine, Atherurus africanus

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Brookfield Zoo (Chicago, United States of America), North Carolina Zoo (Asheboro, United States of America)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Cape porcupine, Hystrix africaeaustralis
-    African spurred tortoise, Centrochelys sulcata

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Diergaarde Blijdorp (Rotterdam, the Netherlands)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Rock hyrax, Procavia capensis

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Zoo Dresden (Germany), Rīgas Nacionālais zooloģiskais dārzs (Latvia), Oglebay Good Zoo (Wheeling, United States of America)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Rock hyrax, Procavia capensis
-    Crested porcupine, Hystrix cristata

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Zoo Basel (Switzerland)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    African spurred tortoise, Centrochelys sulcata

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Fővárosi Állat- és Növénykert (Budapest, Hungary), Bioparc Valéncia (Spain), Nahariya Botanic Garden and Zoo (Israel), Five Sisters Zoo Park (West Calder, United Kingdom), Tropikariet Helsingborg (Sweden)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Aardvark, Orycteropus afer

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Chester Zoo (United Kingdom), ZSL London Zoo (United Kingdom), Blackpool Zoo (United Kingdom), Africa Alive! (Kessingland, United Kingdom), Philadelpia Zoo (United States of America)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Aardvark, Orycteropus afer
-    Thick-tailed greater galago, Otolemur crassicaudatus
-    African brush-tailed porcupine, Atherurus africanus

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Omaha’s Henry Doorly Zoo and Aquarium (United States of America)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Red-chested mustached tamarin, Saguinus labiatus

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Shepreth Wildlife Park (United Kingdom)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Western lowland gorilla, Gorilla gorilla gorilla
-    Sykes’s monkey, Cercopithecus albogularis

Institution(s) with this coexistence: ARTIS Amsterdam Royal Zoo (the Netherlands)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Western lowland gorilla, Gorilla gorilla gorilla

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Zoo d'Amnéville (France), Zoo Opole (Poland)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Ring-tailed lemur, Lemur catta

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Tiergarten Schönbrunn (Vienna, Austria)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Grivet monkey, Chlorocebus aethiops

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Tiergarten Schönbrunn (Vienna, Austria)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    King colobus, Colobus polykomos

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Tiergarten Schönbrunn (Vienna, Austria)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Hamadryas baboon, Papio hamadryas

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Skansen-Akvariet (Stockholm, Sweden)


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Guinea baboon, Papio papio

unknown institution


-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Von der Decken’s hornbill, Tockus deckeni

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Smithsonian National Zoological Park (Washington, United States of America)


Yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata

-    Yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta

Institution(s) with this coexistence: ZOO Antwerpen (Belgium); Yorkshire Wildlife Park (Doncaster, United Kingdom); Kirkleatham Owl Centre (Redcar, United Kingdom); Newquay Zoo (United Kingdom), Knies Kinderzoo (Rapperswil-Jona, Switzerland); Tiergarten Nürnberg (Germany), GaiaZOO (Kerkrade, the Netherlands)


-    Yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Blue crane, Anthropoides paradiseus

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Five Sisters Zoo Park (West Calder, United Kingdom)


-    Yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Crested porcupine, Hystrix cristata

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Woburn Safari Park (Milton Keynes, United Kingdom)


-    Yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Lion, Panthera leo

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Zoologischer Garten Schwerin (Germany); ZOO Antwerpen (Belgium)


-    Yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta
-    Fennec fox, Vulpes zerda
-    South African ground squirrel, Xerus inauris

unknown institution


-    Yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
-    Lion, Panthera leo

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Zoo Basel (Switzerland)


-    Yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
-    Bat-eared fox, Otocyon megalotis

Institution(s) with this coexistence: ZOO Antwerpen (Belgium)


-    Yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
-    Rock hyrax, Procavia capensis

Institution(s) with this coexistence: ZOO Dvůr Králové (Czech Republic), Fővárosi Állat- és Növénykert (Budapest, Hungary)


-    Yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
-    Cape porcupine, Hystrix africaeaustralis

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Chester Zoo (United Kingdom)


-    Yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
-    Red river hog, Potamochoerus porcus
-    
Institution(s) with this coexistence: Chester Zoo (United Kingdom)


-    Yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
-    Crested porcupine, Hystrix cristata
-    
Institution(s) with this coexistence: ZSL London Zoo (United Kingdom)


-    Yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
-    Indian crested porcupine, Hystrix indica

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Dierenpark Zie-Zoo (Volkel, the Netherlands), Zoo de Lille (France), Zoo de Bordeaux Pessac (France)


-    Yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
-    African spurred tortoise, Centrochelys sulcata

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Abenteuerland Walter Zoo (Gossau, Switzerland)


Common dwarf mongoose, Helogale parvula

-    Common dwarf mongoose, Helogale parvula
-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Borth Wild Animal Kingdom (United Kingdom)


-    Common dwarf mongoose, Helogale parvula
-    Bat-eared fox, Otocyon megalotis

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Zoo des Sables d'Olonne (France)


-    Common dwarf mongoose, Helogale parvula
-    Rock hyrax, Procavia capensis
-    Klipspringer, Oreotragus oreotragus
-    South African ground squirrel, Xerus inauris

Institution(s) with this coexistence: San Diego Zoo (United States of America)


-    Common dwarf mongoose, Helogale parvula
-    Nile crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus
-    Red-cheeked cordon-bleu, Uraeginthus bengalus
-    Violet-backed starling, Cinnyricinclus leucogaster
-    Yellow-crowned bishop, Euplectes afer
-    African cichlids, Cichlidae

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Zoo Basel (Switzerland)


-    Common dwarf mongoose, Helogale parvula
-    Garnett’s greater galago, Otolemur garnettii

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Zoologická zahrada hl. m. Prahy (Czech Republic)


-    Common dwarf mongoose, Helogale parvula
-    South African ground squirrel, Xerus inauris

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Zoologischer Garten Magdeburg (Germany)


-    Common dwarf mongoose, Helogale parvula
-    Aardvark, Orycteropus afer
-    several African bird species

Institution(s) with this coexistence: ZOO Wrocław (Poland)


-    Common dwarf mongoose, Helogale parvula
-    Red-billed hornbill, Tockus erythrorhynchus

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Tiergarten Nürnberg (Germany), Oregon Zoo (Portland, United States of America)


-    Common dwarf mongoose, Helogale parvula
-    Jackson’s hornbill, Tockus jacksoni

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Dallas Zoo (United States of America)


-    Common dwarf mongoose, Helogale parvula
-    Von der Decken’s hornbill, Tockus deckeni
-    Giant plated lizard, Matobosaurus validus

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Tiergarten Schönbrunn (Vienna, Austria)


-    Common dwarf mongoose, Helogale parvula
-    Von der Decken’s hornbill, Tockus deckeni

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Bronx Zoo (New York, United States of America), Great Plains Zoo & Delbridge Museum of Natural History (Sioux City, United States of America)


-    Common dwarf mongoose, Helogale parvula
-    African spurred tortoise, Centrochelys sulcata

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Uilen- en Dierenpark „de Paay” (Beesd, the Netherlands)


Banded mongoose, Mungos mungo

-    Banded mongoose, Mungos mungo
-    Slender-tailed meerkat, Suricata suricatta

Unknown institution


-    Banded mongoose, Mungos mungo
-    Crested porcupine, Hystrix cristata

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Denver Zoo (United States of America)


-    Banded mongoose, Mungos mungo
-    Mandrill, Mandrillus sphinx

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Zoo Dresden (Germany)


-    Banded mongoose, Mungos mungo
-    Grivet monkey, Chlorocebus aethiops

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Parco Natura Viva (Bussolengo, Italy)


-    Banded mongoose, Mungos mungo
-    Colobus, Colobus sp.

Unknown institution


-    Banded mongoose, Mungos mungo
-    Rock hyrax, Procavia capensis

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Tiergarten Nürnberg (Germany)


-    Banded mongoose, Mungos mungo
-    Common warthog, Phacochoerus africanus

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Chester Zoo (United Kingdom)


-    Banded mongoose, Mungos mungo
-    Red river hog, Potamochoerus porcus

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Safaripark Beekse Bergen (Hilvarenbeek, the Netherlands)


-    Banded mongoose, Mungos mungo
-    Red-billed hornbill, Tockus erythrorhynchus

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Tiergarten Nürnberg (Germany)


-    Banded mongoose, Mungos mungo
-    Leopard tortoise, Stigmochelys pardalis

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Tropicarium Kolmården (Sweden)


Gambian mongoose, Mungos gambianus

-    Gambian mongoose, Mungos gambianus
-    Black vulture, Aegypius monachus
-    Egyptian vulture, Neophron percnopterus
-    Griffon vulture, Gyps fulvus
-    Himalayan griffon vulture, Gyps himalayensis
-    Rüppell’s vulture, Gyps rueppellii
-    Hooded vulture, Necrosyrtes monachus
-    Secretarybird, Sagittarius serpentarius
-    Trumpeter hornbill, Bycanistes bucinator
-    Spur-winged goose, Plectropterus gambensis

Institution(s) with this coexistence: ZOO a zámek Zlín-Lešná (Czech Republic)


Common kusimanse, Crossarchus obscurus

-    Common kusimanse, Crossarchus obscurus
-    Marsh mongoose, Atilax paludinosus

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Dierenpark Zie-Zoo (Volkel, the Netherlands)


-    Common kusimanse, Crossarchus obscurus
-    Crested porcupine, Hystrix cristata
-    Blue-eyed black lemur, Eulemur flavifrons

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Memphis Zoo (United States of America)


-    Common kusimanse, Crossarchus obscurus
-    Crested porcupine, Hystrix cristata

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Shepreth Wildlife Park (United Kingdom)


-    Common kusimanse, Crossarchus obscurus
-    African brush-tailed porcupine, Atherurus africanus

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Paignton Zoo Environmental Park (United Kingdom)


-    Common kusimanse, Crossarchus obscurus
-    Diana monkey, Cercopithecus diana

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Newquay Zoo (United Kingdom)


White-tailed mongoose, Ichneumia albicauda

-    White-tailed mongoose, Ichneumia albicauda
-    Egyptian mongoose, Herpestes ichneumon

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Samjung The Park (Busan, South Korea)


-    White-tailed mongoose, Ichneumia albicauda
-    Northern plains gray langur, Semnopithecus entellus

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Zoo Heidelberg (Germany)


-    White-tailed mongoose, Ichneumia albicauda
-    Western lowland gorilla, Gorilla gorilla gorilla

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Zoo Heidelberg (Germany)


Marsh mongoose, Atilax paludinosus

-    Marsh mongoose, Atilax paludinosus
-    Common kusimanse, Crossarchus obscurus

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Dierenpark Zie-Zoo (Volkel, the Netherlands)


-    Marsh mongoose, Atilax paludinosus

-    Eastern black-and-white colobus, Colobus guereza

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Randers Regnskov (Denmark)


Egyptian mongoose, Herpestes ichneumon

-    Egyptian mongoose, Herpestes ichneumon
-    White-tailed mongoose, Ichneumia albicauda

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Samjung The Park (Busan, South Korea)


Indian grey mongoose, Herpestes edwardsii

-    Indian grey mongoose, Herpestes edwardsii
-    Rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta
-    Dwraf goat, Capra hircus

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Zoo Heidelberg (Germany)


Narrow-striped mongoose, Mungotictis decemlineata

-    Narrow-striped mongoose, Mungotictis decemlineata
-    Crowned lemur, Eulemur coronatus

Institution(s) with this coexistence: Newquay Zoo (United Kingdom)


-    Narrow-striped mongoose, Mungotictis decemlineata

-    Malagasy giant jumping rat, Hypogeomys antimena

Unknown institution


Meerkat and Indian crested porcupine mixed exhibit, Jászberényi Állat- és Növénykert, Hungary (2007) Photo: ChristianMeerkat and Indian crested porcupine mixed exhibit, Jászberényi Állat- és Növénykert, Hungary (2010) Photo: Christian

Common dwarf mongoose and aardvark mixed exhibit inside the Afrykarium tropical hall, where several African bird species have the possibility to fly into the enclosure (the species on the photo: hadada ibis), ZOO Wroclaw, Poland, 2015 Photo: Christian

Common dwarf mongoose and aardvark mixed exhibit inside the Afrykarium tropical hall, where several African bird species have the possibility to fly into the enclosure (the species on the photo: hadada ibis), ZOO Wroclaw, Poland, 2015 Photo: Christian

 Common dwarf mongoose, Von der Decken’s hornbill and giant plated lizard mixed exhibit, Tiergarten Schönbrunn, Vienna, Austria, 2017 Photo: ChristianCommon dwarf mongoose, Von der Decken’s hornbill and giant plated lizard mixed exhibit, Tiergarten Schönbrunn, Vienna, Austria, 2017 Photo: Christian

Yellow mongoose and rock hyrax mixed exhibit, ZOO Dvur Kralove, Czech Republic, 2014 Photo: Christian

Yellow mongoose and rock hyrax mixed exhibit, ZOO Dvur Kralove, Czech Republic, 2014 Photo: Christian

Conclusion

This document purposefully focuses on creating a list of mixed-species exhibits with Herpestids, for further and detailed information it is worth contacting the institutions mentioned above. Only a short summary of the general experiences is given here. Many of the listed coexistences are still ongoing at present; many of them are not anymore.
Mongooses can play prey and predator species in a mixed exhibit as well. In case of mongoose and lion cohabitation, the smaller species has an enclosure of their own. They have access to the enclosure of the big cats through tunnels, where many alternative tunnels and exits are hidden. In a coexistence of meerkats, yellow mongooses and lions, a lethal accident has also been reported during the period of introduction, as one of the lions was able to catch a mongoose.
One of the most important question is to decide whether we would like to breed the species involved in a multi-species exhibit. On several occasions, porcupines, ground squirrels and rock hyraxes with youngsters had to be separated from meerkats, as the mongooses could have been dangerous to the babies and might have killed them. A few lethal accidents have also been reported with these combinations.
Many species of mongooses, especially meerkats, dig holes which could be dangerous for small and large ungulate species as well. These hoofed mammals could also be dangerous, on one occasion a meerkat was trampled to death by a Giraffe.
Housing diurnal mongoose species with nocturnal species, such as aardvarks, means that animals generally use the exhibit at different times of the day. In one of the zoos, meerkats had climbing structures and hollowed logs the aardvark did not have access to or fit into, furthermore, a plexiglass wall with a mongoose-sized access divided the space so that the meerkats had an area of their own.
In many cases, primates pose special problems in a multi-species exhibit. In some cases, overt aggression between the species occured, e.g. banded mongooses were killed by a mandrill. Even in the absence of a high level of aggression between the species, there may be evidence that one of the species is under stress. Diana monkey & common kusimanse cohabitation proved to be unsuccessful.


References:


GILCHRIST, J. S, JENNINGS, A. P., VERON, G. & CAVALLINI, P. 2009. Family Herpestidae (Mongooses). Pp. 262-328 in: WILSON, D. E. & MITTERMEIER, R. A. eds. 2009. Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Vol. 1. Carnivores. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

HAMMER, G. 2002. Mixed species exhibits involved mammals: stock report and problems. Dissertation. Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät Universität Salzburg.

MACDONALD, D. (ed.) 2001. The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Brown Reference Group Limited

PETEFISH, D. 2004. Mixed Species Survey. Peoria’s Glen Oak Zoo

RASA, O. A. 1983. Dwarf mongoose and hornbill mutualism in the Taru Desert, Kenya. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 12(3), 181-190.

ZIEGLER, T. 2002. Selected Mixed Species Exhibits in Zoological Gardens. Primate Report 64, Pp. 17.

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